Charles E. Wales, *Engineering
Education*, March 1969

Systems Engineering is a method of approach to a complex design problem. The logical starting point in the analysis or design of any educational system is an examination of its basic philosophy and basic objectives. The philosophy and basic objectives must be translated into the specific contentperformance objectives for a course. The process operations selected for any educational design must suit the philosophy, basic objectives, and established contentperformance objectives of the system.

Improve Your Teaching Tomorrow with Teaching-Learning Psychology

Charles E. Wales, *Engineering Education*, February
1976

The effective teacher is likely to be someone who guides students while they learn, allows them to practice, gives students the feedback needed to know whether what they have learned is correct, who reinforces correct behaviors, motivates the students so they want to learn, and recognizes that people are different, that they have different backgrounds and interests and learn at different rates, and who attempts to meet this variation by individualizing work.

The Design of an Educational System

Charles E. Wales, Robert A. Stager, *Engineering
Education*, February 1972

The first step in the design process is to identify the problem that exists. The next step in the design process is the specification of the goals of the educational system. The designer then considers the measurement techniques he will use, not only to evaluate the work of the students, but also to evaluate his course design. The designer knows that all the components of his system will not operate properly from the outset. Therefore, he adopts the attitude traditionally used in the development of programmed instruction: If the student fails to learn what is expected, look first at what he was asked to do, second at the materials he was given to learn from, and finally at the student's use or misuse of those materials.

The Systems Approach: An Introduction

Charles E. Wales

*Individualized Instruction in Engineering Education*,
1974, Chapter 2

This approach is based on content-performance objectives. Modules of instructional material are prepared so the student can begin where he needs to begin and move at his own pace. In addition, students are tested and retested until they demonstrate competency with each module and then they are allowed to move on to the next unit of material.